A company self-examination. What are we known for? Who do we want to become?
In this assignment, you will create a Situation Analysis for one (1) of the following companies / brands:
This company (Google) has been through numerous changes in recent years. Use the information listed, as well as your own knowledge and research, to complete the provided situation analysis template. Additional research should include the use of the company's Website, the course textbook, and other online sources,please fill in every section and question asked in the template .
The template to be filled in is attached.
Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at Stanford University in 1995. By 1996, they had built a search engine (initially called BackRub) that used links to determine the importance of individual Webpages.
Larry and Sergey named the search engine they built "Google," a play on the word "googol," the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Google Inc. was born in 1998, when Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim wrote a check for $100,000 to that entity-which until then didn't exist.
In 2000, we introduced AdWords, a self-service program for creating online ad campaigns. Today our advertising solutions, which include display, mobile and video ads as well as the simple text ads we introduced more than a decade ago, help thousands of businesses grow and become successful.
On April Fools' Day in 2004, we launched Gmail. Our approach to email included features like speedy search, huge amounts of storage and threaded messages. Our Initial Public Offering of 19,605,052 shares of Class A common stock took place on Wall Street on August 18, 2004.
We acquired digital mapping company Keyhole in 2004, and launched Google Maps and Google Earth in 2005. Today Maps also features live traffic, transit directions and street-level imagery, and Earth lets you explore the ocean and the moon.
In 2006, we acquired online video sharing site YouTube. Today 60 hours of video are uploaded to the site every minute. Cat videos, citizen journalism, political candidacy and double rainbows have never been the same.
Amidst rumors of a "Gphone," we announced Android-an open platform for mobile devices-and the Open Handset Alliance, in 2007.
The first part of this assignment is attached as well . This is the seconf part of it to be done.
For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. Harvard Business School 574-082 Rev. April 29, 1983 Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms This note is about several terms and basic calculations used in the analysis of marketing problems. It is almost always necessary to determine the economic consequences of alternative courses of action, or of alternative sets of assumptions, in the analysis of a marketing problem. Contribution The funds available to the seller of an item after subtracting the variable costs associated with it are referred to as contribution. A common reference is also made to unit contribution—that is, the contribution per each item sold. Assume, for example, that we sell a unit of a product to wholesalers at a price of $100, and that the variable manufacturing costs of that unit are $30. In addition, it costs us $3 per unit to ship the product to wholesalers, and we pay a 5% commission to our salespeople ($5 per unit). Under these circumstances, the variable costs associated with each unit of this product are $38 ($30 + $3 + $5). Since we receive $100 revenue for each unit we sell, our unit contribution is $62 ($100 - $38). This $62 unit contribution is available to cover the fixed manufacturing expenses, overheads, and marketing costs associated with the product, and if all goes well, to provide a profit. Fixed costs are costs that remain fixed regardless of the volume of production. Thus, whether we produce 1,000 or 5,000 items, the cost of executive salaries remains fixed, as does rent, insurance, and other so-called overhead expenses. Fixed costs remain unchanged over some reasonable range of the firm's activity. Variable costs, on the other hand, are costs that are directly traceable to the volume of activity—the more we sell, the more raw materials we need, usually the more assembly work we need, and the more sales commission we pay. Break-Even Break-even means that our revenue is just enough to pay for both the variable and the fixed costs we have incurred, but only that. We have no profit, we have no losses; we have only broken even. As a bare minimum, most companies expect a product to break even, that is, not to lose money. Depending on the situation, the appropriate time within which a product should break even may be short (a year, or a season) or long (perhaps as much as five years). For the sake of simplicity, we will assume that the appropriate time period for break-even is one year. It is important to note that under most conditions break-even is not an appropriate goal. Copyright © 1974 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685 or write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 1 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. 574-082 Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms One way to talk of break-even is to say that it occurs when the number of units we sell, multiplied by the unit contribution, is equal to the fixed costs. Thus we calculate break-even as follows: BE = Total fixed costs ÷ unit contribution. If unit contribution is $62, for example, and fixed costs are $100,000, break-even will occur when we produce and sell 1,613 units (that is, $100,000 ÷ $62). If we expect to produce and sell 1,613 units, we expect to break even. But if we produce 2,000 and sell 1,613, we have not broken even. We have incurred losses because our total variable costs are now $38 × 2,000, not $38 × 1,613. Profit Impact Few companies are content to operate at break-even. Normally, they require that each product produces a positive impact on company profits. The impact that a particular product will have on company profits is easily calculated, as follows, using the same figures we have been using: Unit contribution ($62 × units produced and sold − fixed costs = Profit impact × − $100,000 − $100,000 = = $24,000 2,000) $124,000 Why do we call this $24,000 impact on profit (or profit impact) and not just plain profit? The answer is that there may be a few other costs yet to be charged against the product, such as corporate headquarters overhead, not just product-related overhead. Suppose we have a certain profit target in mind—a profit impact of $50,000. What will our production and sales have to be to achieve a profit impact of $50,000? The calculation is the same as the above, except that we add the $50,000 profit target to the fixed costs. With fixed costs now at $150,000 instead of $100,000, the resulting calculation gives us 2,419 units. We would then say that if we wish to achieve a profit impact of $50,000, we will have to make and sell 2,419 units. A similar technique may be used to calculate the effects of a change in our marketing program. Assume that with our present program we expect to make and sell 2,000 units of a product with a $62 unit contribution. With our fixed costs of $100,000, we saw that this yields a $24,000 profit impact. We now consider raising our advertising expenditure by $50,000, which would increase our fixed costs to $150,000. If we do so, how much volume would the new marketing program have to achieve to generate the same profit impact ($24,000) as our present program? The calculation is as follows: Present fixed cost present + profit impact additional + fixed cost unit ÷ contribution Req. = volume $100,000 + $24,000 + $50,000 ÷ $62 = 2,806 We would have to make and sell 2,806 units for the new program to yield the same profit impact as the old one which required sales of only 2,000 units. There are other ways to come up with the same answer, of course, but this way at least has the virtue of clarity. Suppose we improve our product by adding $3 per unit of variable cost. This cuts our unit contribution to $59. If all other costs as well as prices remain unchanged, how much would we have to sell in order to maintain our current profit impact of $24,000? We would then have to sell 2,102 units ([$100,000 + $24,000] ÷ $59). In calculating the economic effects of a marketing program, one is generally forced to make a number of assumptions. The sales forecast is generally the most critical, but fixed costs, variable costs, and selling prices may also be uncertain. Under these circumstances, it is generally useful to calculate the profit impact of a marketing program under varying sets of assumptions. 2 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms 574-082 Obviously, one can make break-even points or expected profit impact come out any way one wishes by making the appropriate assumptions about sales volumes and costs. For this reason the marketing manager should become adept at appraising the realism of the assumptions on which calculations of these types are based. Market Share Analysis One way of assessing the realism of a sales forecast is to calculate its implications for a firm's market share. Assume, for example, that the total market for the product mentioned in the previous examples is 10,000 units, that the market is not expanding, and that we presently sell 2,000 units. We therefore have a market share of 20%. The product manager recommends that we raise our advertising budget by $50,000, which means that we would have to make and sell 2,806 units to maintain our current profit impact. We shall have to make and sell 806 units above the present level, raising our market share from 20% to 28.06%. How likely is this? Can $50,000 of additional advertising accomplish that? Will our competitors give up 8% of market share without fighting back? When demand for a product is not static, calculation of probable effect on market share is more difficult. If we increase advertising by $50,000, for example, total demand for the product may increase. If this happens, some of our sales increase may come from increased market share, but some may also come from increased demand. Would the competition then be as likely to retaliate? Computation of Margin When a manufacturer produces an item for sale, or when a merchant buys an item for resale, a desired selling price is chosen. This price exceeds the manufacturing cost, or the cost paid by the merchant, by what is called the margin. The terms markup and markon are also often used interchangeably with margin, which will be used here. Margin is similar to, though not necessarily the same as, unit contribution (a distinction we shall not clarify here). Margin, cost, and selling price are related to each other in the following manner: Selling price = $1 Margin = 40¢ Cost = 60¢ Thus, we say that the retailer's selling price of an item consists of the cost of the item (i.e., what was paid for it) and the margin. For many purposes it is useful to express the margin as a percentage. Theoretically, the 40-cent margin might be expressed either as a percentage of the cost or as a percentage of the selling price. If it is expressed as a percentage of the cost, the margin would be 66.67%; that is, the 40-cent margin divided by the 60-cent cost equals 66.67%. When it is expressed as a percentage of the selling price, the margin is 40%—40 cents ÷ $1. The commonly accepted practice is to express percentages—both margins and costs—with net sales as the base. While this is the commonly accepted practice, some industries, companies, and individuals depart from that practice. We will follow the common practice. If the cost is known and the percentage of margin on selling price is given, it is a simple matter to compute the selling price. Suppose, for example, that a retail merchant buys goods at a cost of $10 and wants a margin of 331/3% in order to cover expenses and have a chance of making a net profit. What should be the selling price? Since 100% of the selling price is made up of two parts (the cost and the margin), this means that $10 + 331/3% = 100%. It follows that the $10 cost must be 662/3% of the selling price. 3 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. 574-082 Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms What is 100%—the selling price itself? We have said that: × Selling price = $10 662/3% 2 Then: Selling price = $10 ÷ 66 /3% Selling price = $15 Similarly, if a wholesaler buys an article for 60 cents and wants a margin of 20%, the selling price is 60 cents ÷ 80% = 75 cents. Margin percentages are figured on the selling price at each level of business. If it costs a company 75 cents to manufacture an item and it wants a 25% margin, then the selling price must be $1. If the wholesaler to whom the manufacturer sells the item for $1 wants a margin of 162/3%, the selling price will be $1.20. And if the retailer who buys it from the wholesaler for $1.20 resells it to consumers at $2, that margin will be 40% (.80 ÷ $2.00). Since some firms and industries use cost rather than selling price as the basis for their percentage calculations, it is useful to know how to convert from one base to the other. On merchandise costing $6 and selling for $10, the margin is $4. This margin, which is 40% of the selling price, would be 662/3% if computed on the basis of the cost. To make the conversion from either the cost base or the selling-price base to the other, it helps to understand once more that selling price is composed of two parts—the margin and the cost: Cost ↓ $.60 + + Margin ↓ .40 Margin as a percent of selling price = = = Selling price ↓ $1.00 = 40% ,40 $1.00 If we want to convert this margin, expressed as a percent of selling price into a margin expressed as a percent of cost, we say: If 40% is the margin on selling price, then the remaining 60% must be the cost. 40% ÷ 60% = 662/3% = margin based on cost. The following formula invariably gets this conversion right: Percentage margin on price 100% − Percentage margin on price ↓ 40% 100% − 40% = 40% = = Percentage margin on cost ↓ 662/3% 60% Suppose we have the opposite question: How to express a margin figured as a percent of cost into one figured as a percent of selling price? We say: Cost is 100%—that is, the denominator on which the margin was figured. Since the margin on cost (in the above example) is 662/3%, then the selling price must be Cost + Margin = Selling price. (100% + 662/3% = 1662/3%) Margin on percent of selling price = 662/3% ÷ 1662/3% = 40% 4 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms 574-082 The following formula invariably gets this conversion right: Percentage margin on cost 100% + Percentage margin ↓ 662/3% 100% − 662/3% = = 662/3% Percentage margin on selling price ↓ = 40% 1662/3% Discounts and Chain Discounts A common practice for the manufacturer is to suggest at what price the product should be sold by a retailer. If the suggested retail price is $100 while selling the item to the retailer for $60, the manufacturer is, in effect, proposing a suggested retail margin of 40%—that is, ($100 - $60) ÷ $100 = 40%. In common usage it will be said that the manufacturer is offering a trade discount of 40%. Indeed, the manufacturer may actually quote a price to the retailer as $100 less 40%. If the retailer chooses to sell the item for $90 instead of $100, it will still have to pay $100 less 40%, or $60. The margin will be $30 ÷ $90 = 331/3%. Occasionally, discounts from a suggested resale price will be computed in two or more increments. For example, a manufacturer might offer discounts of 40% + 5% on a product priced to be resold at $100. This means that in addition to the original discount (suggested margin) of 40% (here $40), the manufacturer has allowed an additional 5%. This does not mean 40% plus 5%, or 45%. It means $100 - 40% less 5% of $100 - 40%. Thus the retailer pays ($100 - $40) - [5% × ($100 - $40)] = $60 $3 = $57. The 40% + 5% is called a chain discount. The specific percentage link in the chain that is referred to here (5% in the present example) is calculated on the price that is derived after the application of the prior link or links to the suggested retail price. This rather cumbersome practice of stating discounts (or margins) probably arose originally to advise customers of changes in a discount structure. Over the years the method has become traditional in certain industries. Terms of Sale When a manufacturer sells to a wholesaler or distributor, who then sells to a retailer, prices are also generally listed as discounts from a suggested retail price. A product suggested to sell for $100 at retail, with a suggested retail margin of 40% and a suggested wholesale margin of 20%, will be sold by the wholesaler to the retailer at a price of $60 ($100 less 40%), and will be purchased by the wholesaler from the manufacturer for $48 ($60 less 20%). Once again, the margin for a particular institution in the channel of distribution is applied to the price at which the institution sells its goods and services. Terms of sales are a shorthand method of setting forth the conditions under which a company offers to sell its goods or services. In addition to price, they include a statement of trade discounts, the date by which the amount is to be paid, and shipping responsibilities. For example, terms of sale of $50 per unit, 2/10 e.o.m., 60 days net, f.o.b. seller's plant indicate that (1) the price for which the product is being sold is $50; (2) a 2% trade discount off the price ($1) will be offered if the bill or invoice is paid within a period ending 10 days after the end of the month when the invoice is issued; (3) the total amount of the bill is due within 60 days of the invoice date; and (4) the title and responsibility for the subsequent transportation of the product passes from the seller to the buyer at the former's plant. Here, the letters e.o.m. stand for end of month. In their absence, qualifying for the 2% special discount would require paying the bill within 10 days after the date on the invoice. The letters f.o.b. stand for free on board, a traditional means of expressing the physical location where certain responsibilities for transportation and damage-claim litigation pass from seller to buyer. While these 5 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. 574-082 Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms are just two of many different discount and shipping terms, they are perhaps the most commonly used in business today. Exercises Horatio Alger has just become product manager for Brand X. Brand X is a consumer product with a retail price of $1.00. Retail margins on the product are 33%, while wholesalers take a 12% margin. Brand X and its direct competitors sell a total of 20 million units annually; Brand X has 24% of this market. Variable manufacturing costs for Brand X are $0.09 per unit. Fixed manufacturing costs are $900,000. The advertising budget for Brand X is $500,000. The Brand X product manager's salary and expenses total $35,000. Salespeople are paid entirely by a 10% commission. Shipping costs, breakage, insurance, and so forth are $0.02 per unit. 1. What is the unit contribution for Brand X? 2. What is Brand X's break-even point? 3. What market share does Brand X need to break even? 4. What is Brand X's profit impact? 5. Industry demand is expected to increase to 23 million units next year. Mr. Alger is considering raising his advertising budget to $1 million. a. If the advertising budget is raised, how many units will Brand X have to sell to break even? b. How many units will Brand X have to sell in order for it to achieve the same profit impact that it did this year? c. What will Brand X's market share have to be next year for its profit impact to be the same as this year? d. What will Brand X's market share have to be for it to have a $1 million profit impact? 6. Upon reflection, Mr. Alger decides not to increase Brand X's advertising budget. Instead, he thinks he might give retailers an incentive to promote Brand X by raising their margins from 33% to 40%. The margin increase would be accomplished by lowering the price of the product to retailers. Wholesaler margins would remain at 12%. a. If retailer margins are raised to 40% next year, how many units will Brand X have to sell to break even? b. How many units will Brand X have to sell to achieve the same profit impact next year as it did this year? 6 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016. For the exclusive use of J. Cady, 2016. Note on Marketing Arithmetic and Related Marketing Terms 574-082 c. What would Brand X's market share have to be for its profit impact to remain at this year's level? d. What would Brand X's market share have to be for it to generate a profit impact of $350,000? 7 This document is authorized for use only by John Cady in 2016.