Edensor Novel Review Essay

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Paperback, 206 pages

Published November 9th 1973 by Pan Books (first published 1970)

Edensor novel is a best seller and a very phenomenon novel because of condition with the moral values and spirit of education. The great moral values and spirit involved in the novel had made the researcher interested in conduction such a research on the title “An Analysis of Moral Values in Edensor written by Andrea Hirata”. The researcher would analyze the moral values in the novel, so the research formulated his problem into: how are the moral values depicted in the novel Edensor written by Andrea Hirata? The purposes of this research are to identify and to analyze the moral values which are depicted in novel Edensor. The research was expected to be significances, there are theoritically and practically. Theoritically it is expected to give the contribution to the moral values which ought to be owned by the human and useful for science growth. While practically, this research is expected to give information/know positive moral valeus to the reader and to be teachers’ and students’ motivation as inspiration of their spirit of education. This research is only focused on moral value that refers to education inside the teachers and students in Andrea Hirata’s novel Edensor. The research methodology used is qualitative method it was library research. There are primary sources and secondary sources. The data collected are analyzed by data reduction, data display, and data conclution/verification. In the analysis, which also become the conclusion of this research are found that: there are moral values as very prominent spirit of students’ education. Limitedness and poverty do not weaken their spirit to teach and learn, but as challenges to be successful in the future; great spirit, hope, creative, optimism are the primary capitals for success and make dream real.


Finally, the researcher would like to thank people whose names are not printed in this pages who always encouraged and motivated the research in finishing the thesis. May Allah SWT bless, protect, guide and show us to the right

path only. Amin ya rabbal alamin


A. Background of the Research
In human life there is always the problem of morality from time to time, as the ways of life, in every time and place emerging leaders who uphold moral values​​. Like the prophets, especially Mohammed, who has the duty to uphold moral values​​, to uphold morals is very important in life in order to achieve harmony and peace in life.
Harmony in life is very important because, first, human beings are naturally unique. Because of the uniqueness they have different morality, on the one hand someone has a desire good things, upbeat and positive like helping others, loyal, patient and so on. On the other hand he also has behavior that are not good, negative, pessimistic, rude and so forth. This situation is a challenge to the man in his life to fight for good morals and praiseworthy. Second, human life is extremely diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, language, race or mindset, and this is the real action. The phenomenon of plurality in certain situations can lead human beings to conflict, and therefore conflict can be avoided if we enforce morality or studied
Morals can be enforced by many ways, one of them is through education. Education is one of the factors which are needed by humans in their life, including moral education, because morality is a matter that supports the development of a Nation. The education of moral values is very important and influent in human life. Therefore, by the absence of higher moral values ​​in human life will be declined, moral values ​​are considered very important because one of the sources of human happiness is having good morality. Besides, moral education can be learn through other media such as books, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, drama, movies and so on, can be used to educate the public morals.[1]
Moral education can be given to students with of education and a wide range of media. One of the media in the form of moral education is by reading a novel. The novel has values message to be conveyed to its readers. One of them is value of moral education. Then it is very likely if the novel also has a moral education values​​.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher would like to examine the values ​​of moral education in the novel Edensor by Andrea Hirata. He was interested in this novel because the novel contained a lot of moral messages that can give enlightenment through its characters. So that the reader can take a lesson by taking the nature of good and leave the bad nature. One example of the values ​​of good moral education in the form of mutual help in Edensor as in the sentence:
Akhir bulan aku memecahkan tabungan pramukaku lalu bersepeda puluhan kilometer ke Manggar demi satu tujuan: membeli radio saku untuk Weh. [2]

(End of last month I broke my saving scout and than cycled tens of kilometers to the Manggar for one purpose to buy a radio for Weh).

Based on the above, quotation we can take the moral ​​education in the form of helpful souls among others. It illustrated Ikal to break the figures for the sake of saving scouts to help others to have a radio from the treasure, he also sacrificed to sacrifice time and energy to be able to buy a radio to help one another. And there are a lot of values ​​of moral education in novel Edensor.
Knowing a lot of moral values that are implicitly contained in the novel, the researcher felt interested to conduct a research under the title “An analysis of Moral Values in Edensor” by Andrea Hirata.
B. Problem of the Research
The researcher would analyze the moral values in the novel, so the research formulated his problem into: how are the moral values depicted in the novel Edensor written by Andrea Hirata?

C. Purpose of the Research
The purpose of the research was to identify and to analyze the moral values which are depicted in the novel Edensor written by Andrea Hirata.

D. Scope of the Research
Novel is a part of literary works which can be analyzed from several points of view such as character, morality, language, love, theme, tragedy etc. In this research, the researcher only focused on analyzing moral values depicted in the novel Edensor written by Andrea Hirata.

E. Significance of the Research
The research was expected to be significant both theoretically and practically.

  1. This research was expected to give the contribution to the moral values which ought to be owned by the human and useful for science growth. It was also hoped to be useful for other researcher to know some moral values and to analysis characters in other novels.

F. Operational Definition
The researcher thought that it was necessary to clarify some terms which are used in this research to avoid misinterpretation, the terms used are follows:

  1. Novel Edensor is the third book of the Laskar Pelangi which is presenting to the reader, one form of the experience of an Andrea Hirata. The stories in it are the vertices incident he ever experienced. Then how he arrived at Edensor, in an unplanned trip, and the incident he made is ​​a symbol of his meeting with Ling. This novel tells Ikal and Arai who did not know that they can get scholarship to study in France, Europe, and also about the spirit of the author to study through their suffering and buffetings. The author seems to expect the reader to follow the example of the character of the main characters in real life.[5]

[1] Gazali Yusuf, Budi Pekerti/Akhlak, (Surakarta: Pabelan, 1996), p 112

[2] Andrea Hirata, Novel Edensor, (Yogyakarta: Bentang Pustaka, 2006), p. 4
[3] Hornby, Oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford University press 1997), p 1693

[4] Siswanto Wahyudi, Pengantar Teori Sastra, (Jakarta: Grasindo, 2008), p 141

[5] Wikipedia, Definition of Edensor, http: id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edensor, accessed on April 5Th 2014


A. The Nature of Literature
Everyone can make each other's work with the imagination, insight and experience. We also have to appreciate the works of others both it is bad or good, because every piece of literature that has been created by others is not as easy as we think. Tarigan in Barus said “Literature is the depiction of life and imaginative thoughts in the form and structure of language. Literature cover human’s conditions of life with all the feeling, thought and insight. Literature appreciates the works of art, such as novel, poetry, biography, drama etc. The principle of literature is very contrast with technical books and journalism.”[1]
Hudson said “Literature is composed of those books, and of those books only, which, in the first place, by reason of their subject-matter and their mode of treating it, are of general human interest and in which, in the second place, the element of form and the pleasure which form gives are to be regarded as essential”.[2]
Sinha in Barus said that: Literature in the true sense of the term is that kind of writing which is charged with human interest, and characterized by permanence, coloring of imagination, and artistic embellishment. It deal with the life of man and his destinies on earth. It expresses thoughts, feelings, emotions and attitudes toward life, which are permanent and universal which, in other word, do not change of time and place. It is this permanence and universality which distinguishes literature from journalism and advertisement, which sometimes contain brilliant pieces of descriptions, and thoughtful discussion. While the view and thoughts expressed in newspaper outline, their utility and relevancy in a year or two, these literature go on appealing to man thought the corridors of time.[3]

Based on the explanation above literature is kind of writings in describing one's life or others life with his imagination thinking. Everyone can make any of its own literature, the literature that we can also develop and we can describe the contents of the heart or trips based on the experience of time and place live, like writing a novel.

Yasa provided four characteristics of literature. They are as follows:
a. Literary work as a container
What comes to your mind when listening to the word ‘container’? The objects surround us will be crossed, such as bowls, cups, plates, or anything that has a function as a place to hold something, such as liquid, solid, and other. Association through the example bring us to the characteristics of literary work as a container. As a container, a literary work function to convey ideas of novelist, poets, and dramatists. The authors’ ideas can be social critic, politic, and culture related to problem existed in the neighborhood. The efforts to tell the ideas through literary work can be regarded as creative efforts of a writer to engage readers’ community to discuss that are going on in life.
b. Literary work have universal characteristics
A literary work conveys social criticism to the reader with the medium of language. Every word, phrase or sentence that is in a literary work, whether it be characters, settings, and others have universal properties. That is, the elements: character, setting, and others have reference outside itself, and the reference includes a variety of things.
c. Literary work experiences deautomation/defamiliarization
When reading a poem, prose, or drama, we find a strange “world”. As we read those sentences of literature we often do not understand them. We are invited to think to recognize the context of the sentences. When we have got the context, we will continue again to read the work, which requires also finding another context so that we can read (understand) the literary work as a whole. The strange “world” that occurred in the literature is caused by deautomation or defamiliarization symtoms owned by the literature.
d. Literature is a process of mimesis and writer’s creativity
Literary work are said to be popular as one of forms of art work and even culture. As a work art, literary work rose through the creative process of a writer. Therefore, the creativity of an author will determine the quality of his work. How he chose the word, problems and social phenomena, politic, culture in the community will be determined respectively by the author. Therefore, writing a literary work is often described as a creative activity.[4]

According to experts Kinds of literature is divided into four kinds, they are Poetry, Drama, Novel, and Short story.

a. Poetry
Poetry (from the Greek poiesis ποίησις meaning a "making", seen also in such terms as "hemopoiesis"; more narrowly, the making of poetry) is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.[5]
Hudson, in his “An Introduction to the Study of Literature” said that poetry is “the art of employing words in such a manner as to produce an illusion on the imagination, the art of doing by means of words what the painter does by means of colors”.[6]
So, the poem is a literary work which was written by a person of experience and imagination with colorful rhythm of life.

b. Drama
The word drama or theater derived from the Greek, from the verb dran meaning “to act or to do”. Etymologically, drama prioritizes action, movement, which is the essence core of each work of drama. Then Moulton said that “drama is life presented in action”, or Bhatazar Verhagen who stated that “drama is art of painting natureand human behavior by motion”.[7]
c. Novel
The word ‘Novel’ derived from the Latin word ‘Novellus’ which was also derived from ‘novies’ mean “new”. It is said new as compared to othe literary genres such as poetry and drama, the novel comes later. According to Albert Liddell “the first Britain’s novel was Famela written in 1740.[8]
In the Oxford Dictionary it can be found statement “the novel is a story long enough to fill a complete book, in which the characters and events are usually imaginary”.[9]

d. Short Story
A short story is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood. Edgar Allan Poe said that, “short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.”[10]
According to B. Mathews: “It’s not a short story if there is nothing to be told....” Stewart Beach said that “considering its limits, a short story is the simplest form of fiction. However, unlike the novel, the short story has fewer places to solve a complicated situation.[11]

B. Understanding of Novel

Novel is a kind of imaginative literature, which belongs to narrative fiction. The literature of imaginations always present experience by a fictitious presentation of persons, ideas, and events. In novel, all events or ideas are almost the same with the reality. The author creates character, plot and setting which is familiar to the reader in order to make them understand, comprehend and enjoy the story easily.
Hudson, in his “An Introduction to Literature” said that “the novel is self contained; it provides within its own compass everything that the writer deemed necessary for the comprehension and enjoy meant of his work.[12]
Novel is part of literature. Most novels talked about people and their problem, especially the conflict between individual and the society in which they live. In it, the authors express their ideas, imagination, feeling, morality, character, setting etc. Novel is also one of interesting objects for reading. Sometimes, lectures and teachers at some of universities and schools ask their student to read, to understand, and to analyze certain novels in order to extract moral teachings; the students can analyze the moral values of the story especially positive values. Then they can draw lesson from the story. In fact, most of readers cannot analyze the moral values after finishing reading the novel.

According to Badrum and Ahmad in Sufriadi’s thesis, novel is divided into five classes, they are:
a. Adventures Novel
It is the novel focusing on one character, which is considered as a hero. This character always has conflict in realizing his ideal purpose. The stories of the novel star by presenting the main character that have problem which requires solutions.

b. Psychological Novel
It is a novel telling about psychological problem which is experienced by characters in the novel. It is focused on mental situation of characters.
c. Detective Novel
It is a novel telling about criminal and presenting one or two characters who act as fighters of criminality or as defenders of truth.
d. Social Novel
It is a novel which tells about the differences in status and social activities. They are against one another.
e. Collective Novel
It is a novel which combines two or more kinds of novel presented above.[13]

There are some elements consist in a literary work, especially in novel, namely; intrinsic and extrinsic elements. Intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to literature are ways to criticize literature in different term.
a. Intrinsic elements
The intrinsic elements are the main elements of novel. There are physique elements, which build a novel. Each element has relation each other. It means that all intrinsic elements support each other in making complete and unified story. Every novel has the following elements

When and where the story takes place. Setting is place in which something is fixed. Setting is evidence into two parts, namely setting of place and setting of time.
a) Setting of place
A setting is the problem what happens in the story, the actual geographical location, is topography, scenery and such physical arrangements as the location of the windows and doors in the room.
b) Setting of time
A setting shows the location where can event is happening at the story. The time or period in which the action takes place, for example: epoch in history or season of the year.

People portrayed in the novel. It is the characters who move the action, or plot, of the story forward. Most novels contain major characters and minor characters
a). Major Character
The major characters are the most important figures, men and women in a literary work. The major character is not by itself representing a noble nature because it can also be negative, but because he was the central figure in the story.

b). Minor Character
Minor characters are figure that the properties and behavior characterization serve to support the main character.

What happen in the story. Plot refers to the action; the basic storyline of the novel. The plot is usually structured with acts and scenes. It is the organization of incidents in a narrative. The plot of a novel may also be simple and compound. The simple plot consists of one story only, the compound of two or more stories

It plays an important role in a novel. Good dialogue greatly brightens a narrative and is an evidence of a novelist’s technical skill. Its greatest function is to reveal characters to unfurl the passions, motives, and feelings which actuate them. It also reveals the reaction of the speakers to the events they are participating in. in other that dialogue may be effective and may perform its function of unfurling the character and action it is necessary that it should fulfil certain requirements.

The lesson the writer of the story is trying to teach the reader. The “message”, a theme illuminates or comments upon some aspect of life and thus has value outside the story. The theme of a good story is somewhat like the man philosophy, and its factual structure is like his sense of reality; the theme gives coherence and meaning to the fact.

Like other forms of literature the novel gives the writer’s criticism or interpretation of life. Like the drama the novel deals directly with life-with men a women, their passions, desires, feelings, thoughts, joys and sorrows, successes or failures. In expressing his interpretation or criticism of life, the novelist may start out with the avowed intention of expounding a body of ethical doctrines, or may like the dramatist leave the philosophy of life to be evolved out of the story and the characters. The manner the novelist selects and arranges his materials, develops his story and presents his characters itself shows us in a general way what he thinks about life.[14]

b. Extrinsic elements
The literary elements which can be found outside the literary works but it is indirectly influence the structure of the literary works. In extrinsic element there are:
1). Social Value
It is the value related to all of the social contexts, including moral value, lifestyle, and others.
2). World View
It is how the writer looks or means the world, including his/her beliefs and principles of life.
3). Psychology
It includes the psychological conditions of the writer in creating the literary works. It also concerns to the reader’s conditions.
4). Economy
It includes the economical condition of the writer.[15]
C. Moral Values
A moral value is the principles of rightness and wrongness that are accepted by an individual and social group.[16] While, Yusuf said that Moral is the basic principle of human life. Morals are closely related to the law, morality, religion, and so on. Morals arise from human consciousness to develop personal self and society, develop a means to correct errors and improve what has been good. Morals are the foundation of human life as the regulatory toward the perfection of life. Moral values ​​arise from the human conscience, which will determine his behavior. He is the pressure of the soul. With the values ​​of good character, would be easier to live a life that is good in our intercourse outside and inside.[17]
Based explanation above, moral arising from one's consciousness arising in the heart, the moral influence in public of life, with good morals, we are very easy to get along in the community outside or inside, moral also bound like law, religion, education and others.

D. Novel Edensor
Novel Edensor is the third book of the Laskar Pelangi which had been published by Bentang Pustaka on may 2007 which is presenting to the reader, one form of Andrea Hirata’s experience. The stories in it are the vertices incident he ever experienced, education, and story of the romance. Edensor got literary nomination award (Khatulistiwa Literary Award) in 2007.

Andrea Hirata was born on the island of Belitung October 24, 1982. He is a novelist of Indonesia who comes from Belitong Island Bangka Belitung.Andrea Hirata himself was the fourth child of the couple Seman Said Harunayah and NA Masturah. He was born in a poor village, including the village and is situated on the island farthest enough Belitong. Lived in a village with all the limitations are quite affecting personal Andrea childhood. He claimed to get more motivation from his surroundings that many shows apprehension. Andrea Hirata name is not actually a gift from her parents. From birth he was named Aqil Barraq Badruddin. Feeling not match the name, Andrea was replaced with Wadhud. However, he still felt burdened with that name. As a result, he changed his name back to Andrea Hirata Seman Said Harun since he was a teenager. Andrea remains a jolly boy who occasionally turns into thinkers while studying at school. In addition, he also often have dreams and dreams in the future. With the success of creating great novels and attract the readers like Laskar Pelangi, and he is also classified into the people of successful in making novel.
Titles of those novels are:
Book 1: Laskar Pelangi (Rainbow Troops)
Book 2: Sang Pemimpi (The Dreamer)
Book 3: Edensor (Edensor)
Book 4: Maryamah Karpov (Maryamah Karpov)
Book 5: Padang Bulan dan Cinta dalam Gelas (The Strange Rhythm)
Book 6: Ayah (Two Trees)

Andrea Hirata was addicted to write novel since that time. He spent his nights by writing. He transformed word by word which become sentences and estuary on the long story that the main figure was Ikal.[18]

Edensor is tell about the journey of two children from Belitung, Ikal and Arai. They managed to obtain a scholarship to study at the Sorbonne, Paris. After they tests of scholarship, than they get a scholarship to the University of Sorbonne Paris, cause their results of research can lead to new theories, even though they do not know. They are in the conductance by his father at the airport, Ikal and Arai really missed their father, Ikal always remembered some advice and he always prayed to his parents to succeed someday. When he was a child until he is an adult he has always loved his father as well as his best friend (Arai), they always together, Arai was a friend his loved and also make inspiration for him, they have the same dream that for studied at the Sorbonne Paris and surround Europe to Africa.
When they Arrived in Europe, they welcomed the cold weather. Unfortunately, they are not come in the house of Van Der Wall, temporary residence, because late and they were not informed. Next day, they take a walk to the city center. But with their appearance disheveled, many officers were suspicious and searched them. Relief then comes after Erika, secretary of Mr. Dr. Woodward was assigned to pick them up and drove him back to the flat. A week in the flat, they decided go to France to look for a place to stay in apartment, and visiting the legendary of Eifel Tower.
Next time, the collage had begins. They met people from various nations. Ikal met a German girl her named Katya who has beautiful woman. Katya establish love with Ikal. However, Ikal just loving for A Ling, its make him love could not live much longer with Katya. He finally decided to be friends. Ikal was very loving A Ling. Unfortunately he did not where is she. He only knows A Ling go to clothing governance school. It could be Singapore, Africa or Europe. Ikal have remembered, he was ever read a novel about a beautiful village named Endesor. A Ling likes and want to go that place.
They collage at the University of Sorbonne, Ikal and his friends was bored than they decided to make a bet around Europe for 3 months. Who able to surround Countries is the winner. The bets actually made Ikal’s other purpose will be run, looking for A Ling. They start on a journey from the Netherlands. With Arai, they success to surrround some beautiful country in Europe. Unfortunately, Arai respiratory disease than that he had to return to Indonesia. Ikal finally decided to return to his apartment in France. He welcomed the bad news that the his lecture would soon retire and he advised to go with him to the Sheffield in England. Finally he decided go to Sheffield for end his research with Professor Turnbull in Sheffield England. After in profersor Turnbull’s home, he was not at home home, his wife said, while waiting for the professor Turnbull back home, Ikal choosing around the Sheffield, and finally he found the beautiful village which makes him happy, and he asked for the people about name of village, the village was named Edensor

[1] Jumat Barus, Introduction to Literature: A student’s Handbook, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh, 2014), p. 1

[2] William Henry Hudson, An Introduction to the Study of Literature, (London: New Impression Reset, George G. Harrap, 1916), p. 10
[3] Jumat Barus, Introduction to Literature: A student’s Handbook, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh 2014), p. 1

[4] I Nyoman Yasa, Teori Sastra dan Penerapannya, (Bandung: Karya Putra Darwati, 2012), p. 3-9

[5] Wikipedia, Definition of Poetry, http://en. wikipedia. Org/wiki/poetry, accessed on April 16 2014

[6] William Henry Hudson, An Introduction To The Study of Literature, (London: New Impression Reset, George G. Harrap, 1916), p. 83

[7] Henry Guntur Tarigan, Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Sastra, (Bandung: Angkasa, 2011), p. 69-7
[8] Ibid, p. 167

[9] Hornby, Oxford advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford University press 1997), p. 1039

[10] Edgar Allan Poe, Definition of Short story, http:// en. wikipedia. Org / wiki / Short_story, accessed on April 05 2014

[11] Jumat Barus, Introduction to Literature: A student’s Handbook, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh 2014), p. 48

[12] William Henry Hudson, An Introduction to the Study of Literature, (London: New Imppression Reset, George G. Haris), p. 168
[13] Sufriadi, The Analysis of Moral Values in The man and the Sea by Ernest Hermingway, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh, 2011), p. 11

[14] Jumat Barus, Introduction to Literature: A student’s Handbook, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh 2014), p. 43

[15] Wikipedia, Extrinsic Element Novel, http://en. wikipedia. Org/wiki/Extrinsic element, accessed on April 07 2014

[16] Sufriadi, The Analysis of Moral Values in The Man and the Sea by Ernest Hermingway, (Lhokseumawe: STAIN Malikussaleh, 2011), p. 5

[17] Gazali Yusuf, Budi pekerti/Akhlak, (Surakarta: Pabelan, 1996), p 111
[18] Wikipedia, Biography of Andrea Hirata, http:an.wikipedia.org/wik/Andrea_Hirata, accessed on April 07 2014


In this chapter, the researcher gave information about methodology of the research, which was consisted of research design, research procedure, sources of data, technique of collecting data, research instrument and technique of analysing data.
A. Research Design
Sugiyono said that “Qualitative method is a kind of research that its inventions are not found through statistical data and formula in analyzing the data”.[1] The qualitative research is aimed to understand phenomenon about what is in the subject of research naturally, such as motivation, perception, behavior, and so on.[2]

The qualitative method has four characteristics, namely:

  1. Natural setting is data resources and researcher of a key instrument.
  2. The qualitative method descriptively means that the data is explained in it.
  3. The form of word or picture is not statistic.
  4. “Meaning” is essential to the qualitative approach.
    The researcher used a descriptive qualitative research, which is defined as a research of which the data in the form of written or oral words that is descriptively analyzed. Qualitative research deals with a kind of research which doesn’t use statistic procedures in analyzing the data. In a descriptive qualitative research, the writer tends to prior in accurate explanation to analyze and present what have been found.[3]
    Qualitative research includes the descriptive research, in which most of the data were collected in the forms of words. The research contained quotation from the data of documents to illustrate the presentation. Usually, it describes the world in narrative form. The researcher used a descriptive research in order to describe the moral values in “Edensor”

B. Research Procedure
The procedure to collect the data is important. It is for knowing how the data are collected and answered the questions to the research problem the researcher has to decide and choose the right procedure to collect the data.
In this study, the researcher did five procedures to collect the data, as follow:

  1. Repeatedly read all of the content of the novel. He repeatedly reads the novel as primary source of data and wrote related information.
  2. Set the research time. The researcher set time the schedule of conducting the research.
  3. Analyze the moral values that related to the main characters in the novel, based on the theory given.
    To conduct this research, the researcher had done some steps to find relevant information that had been checked. The process of finding data began with finding references from general into specific information, which can be presented in steps as follows:

C. Sources of Data
The sources of data in this research were divided into primary and secondary sources. They are as follows:

Library source as primary is the original treatise that written by someone, thoughts, experience. The data source in this research was taken from the novel “Edensor” by Andrea Hirata which was published in 2008

  1. Secondary Source
    Secondary source is essay of the other’s research, review, condensation, criticism, and similar writing that are experienced indirectly. It was the data source used to support and complete the primary data. The data was taken from any kinds of book and relevant materials such as books of literature theories, moral value, and education that were related to moral values consisted in the novel.

D. Technique of Collecting Data
The process of collecting data for this research was all done through library research. The data collected from the library in a few places where the books related to this research available to get more precise information or support in the research process. Therefore, the data needed in this research were all expressions, phrases and statements in the novel. The Primary data were collected from the novel “Edensor” written by Andrea Hirata.

E. Technique of Analyzing Data
Miles and Huberman in Sugiyono said “the activity of analyzing the data for qualitative is done by interactive and continued until finished, the activity in analyzing data are data reduction, data display and conclusion/verification”.[4]
To analyze data the researcher used descriptive analysis. They were data reduction, data display and conclusion/verification
a. Data Reduction
In data reduction step the researcher tried to focusing on the data important and finding theme, and throw the data that is not important. Therefore, the data reduction will give clearer description so that researchers will be easily and find the data needed. In this data reduction, the researcher only focused this research on moral values in Andrea Hirata’s novel by title “Edensor”.
Data Display
Data display is the next step after data reduction. In the qualitative approach, the data display will be done in short essay. Miles and Huberman state that. “The most frequent form of displaying data for qualitative research data in the past has been narrative text”.[5]
Therefore, the data of this research were displayed in short description form. It is about the illustration of moral values reflected by the main characters illustrated by Andrea Hirata in his novel “Edensor”
b. Conclusion/Verification
The last step of data analysis of qualitative approach is data verification. The conclusion of qualitative research would be the answering of the problem of the research which had been formulated in the first planning of the research. The conclusion would be new finding that has never been existed yet. The finding can be like the description of the object, causal correlation, or theory. The research could be verified in sense to be confirmed, revised and repeated by the same or different way. The data conclusion would refer to illustration of Moral values in Novel “Edensor”.[6]

[1] Sugiono, Memahami Penelitian Qualitative, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2007), P.62

[2] Wikipedia, Qualitative Research , http: id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edensor, accessed on April 20Th 2014

[3] Moleong. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosda karya, 2003), p. 6

[4] Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2006), p.338

[5] Ibid, p 338

[6] Ibid. p. 339


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